15 Rajamani, L., `The 2015 Paris Agreement: Interplay between Hard, Soft and Non-Obligations` (2016) 28(2) Journal of Environmental Law, 337-58, at 343CrossRefGoogle Scholar (“It all depends on who the destination is addressed to or to whom it is identified as an actor.” When the provision is addressed to “each party,” it refers to an individual obligation. If addressed to “all parties,” it could refer to a collective commitment. In the case of “parties,” it could be, in some cases, a cooperative or collective obligation, depending on the context; in other countries, it could be a general or universal reference to “parties” that does not necessarily signal collective or cooperative engagement”; and 352 (where Rajamani recognizes a category of individual “hard” commitments that “are appropriate for assessing respect and non-compliance” and that appear to imply “hard” collective commitments); Rajamani, above 11, 497, 501, 503 (where they distinguish collective and individual obligations; contrasts collective and individual “requirements” with collective and individual “expectations”); C. Voigt, `The Paris Agreement: What is the Standard of Conduct for Parties?`, Questions of International Law online articles, 24 Mar 2016, p. 17-28, at 17, read: www.qil-qdi.org/paris-agreement-standard-conduct-parties (`Some [treaty provisions] contain legally binding obligations, either material or procedural in nature. These obligations can be collective or individual”; Bodansky, D., `The Legal Character of the Paris Agreement` (2016) 25(2) Review of European, Comparative, and International Environmental Law, P. 142-50, at 145-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar (where heizi caterses obligations as collective or individual: z.b` provisions … create collective and non-individual obligations, and use a “collective purpose” other than “collective commitment”; Bodansky, D., Brunnée, J. – Rajamani, L., International Climate Change Law (Oxford University Press, 2017), p. 18, 218-9, 225, 231, 234-5, 243Google Scholar (where they classify collective or individual obligations and distinguish collective and individual expectations and between collective commitments and collective goals); Peel, J., `Climate Change`, in Nollkaemper, A.

– Plakokefalos, I. (eds), The Practice of Shared Responsibility in International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2017), p. 1009-50, circa 1024CrosRefGoogle Scholar (referring to the UNFCCC, not the Paris Agreement: “These provisions [in Article 3 of the UNFCCC] could lead to a collective commitment by the parties to the agreement to stabilize emissions at a level adapted to the protection of the climate system and, in the future, to avoid dangerous global warming”); Rajamani – Brunnée, above 11, 541, 543 (where the authors declare “individual commitments” and “collective responsibility for language,” implying the existence of collective commitments); Huggins, No. 11 above, p. 204 (“The Paris Agreement requires all parties to keep the increase in global average temperature well below pre-industrial levels and to continue efforts to limit the increase in temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels”); Voigt, C.