In addition, the signing of NAFTA has coincided with what Cameron calls a “financial merger” of the Mexican banking system. One of the consequences of this trade crisis has been the intervention of the drug industry to fill the void in the country`s economy and the subsequent growth of cartels. The process, which Cameron said has led to a spread of violence in Central American countries, remains an important factor in the flow of migrants north to the United States. Democratic candidate Bernie Sanders, who opposed the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade deal, called it “a continuation of other disastrous trade agreements such as NAFTA, CAFTA and normal, long-term trade relations with China.” He believes that free trade agreements have led to the loss of American jobs and lower U.S. wages. Sanders said America needs to rebuild its production base with U.S. factories for well-paying jobs for the U.S. workforce, instead of relocating to China and elsewhere. [126] [127] [128] Finally, NAFTA created the framework for trade in North American countries. Although the creation of the Free Trade Agreement has had good and bad results, there is no question of the increase in cross-border trade. Ross Perot, the 1992 presidential candidate, predicted, as you know, that an agreement like NAFTA would create a “great air” – meaning Mexico is sucking jobs into the United States. In a 60-minute interview in September 2015, presidential candidate Donald Trump described NAFTA as “the worst trade deal ever approved in the United States”[121] and said that if elected, “he would either renegotiate or we would break it.” [122] [123] Juan Pablo Castaen [es], chairman of the trade group Consejo Coordinador Empresarial, expressed concern about the renegotiations and the desire to focus on the automotive industry.

[124] A number of trade experts have stated that abandoning NAFTA would have a number of unintended consequences for the United States, including limited access to its key export markets, lower economic growth and higher prices for gasoline, cars, fruits and vegetables. [125] Members of the Mexican private initiative noted that many laws needed to be adapted by the U.S. Congress to eliminate NAFTA. Finally, this would give rise to complaints from the World Trade Organization. [124] The Washington Post found that a review of academic literature by the Congress Research Service concluded that “the overall net effect of NAFTA on the U.S. economy appears to be relatively modest, mainly because trade with Canada and Mexico accounts for a small percentage of U.S. GDP.” [63] Maquiladoras (Mexican assembly plants that absorb imported components and produce goods for export) have become the emblem of trade in Mexico. They left the United States for Mexico, hence the debate about the loss of American jobs. Revenues in the maquiladora sector had increased by 15.5% since nafta in 1994. [68] Other sectors have also benefited from the free trade agreement and the share of non-cross-border exports to the United States has increased over the past five years [when?], while the share of exports from border states has declined. This has led to rapid growth in non-cross-border metropolitan areas such as Toluca, Leén and Puebla, all more populated than Tijuana, Ciudad Juérez and Reynosa. US President Donald Trump opposed it during his election campaign and promised to renegotiate the agreement and “open it” if the US could not get its desired concessions.

A renegotiated agreement between the United States and Mexico-Canada was adopted in 2020 to update NAFTA. But why did Trump and many of his supporters see NAFTA as “the worst trade deal of all time,” while others saw their main flaw as a lack of ambition and the solution as even more regional integration? What did we promise? What was delivered? Who were the winners of NAFTA and who were the losers? Read on to learn more about history